**Number System and Codes**

- Number System – Base or Radix of Number System
- Binary Arithmetic – Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division
- Codes – BCD, Gray Codes, ASCII, Excess-3
- BCD Addition

**Logic Gates and Logic Families**

- Logic Gates – Symbols, Diodes/Transistors, Switch Circuit, and Logical Expression
- Truth Tables of Logic Gates
- Truth Tables of Universal Gates
- Truth Tables of Special Purpose and Tri-State Gates
- Laws of Boolean Algebra
- Boolean Algebra – Duality Theorem
- Boolean Algebra – Demorgans Theorem
- Characteristics of Logic Families
- Logic Families – Comparison of TTL
- Logic Families – CMOS
- Logic Families – Types of TTL and NAND Gates

**Combinational Logic Circuits**

- Standard Boolean Representation – Sum of Product and Product of Sum
- Standard Boolean Representation – Min-term and Max-term
- Standard Boolean Representation – Conversion between POS and SOP forms
- Standard Boolean Representation – Realization using NAND/NOR Gates
- K-Map Reduction Techniques for Boolean Expression – Minimization of Boolean functions up to 4 variables (SOP and POS Form)
- Design of Arithmetic Circuits and Code Converter using K-Map – Half and Full Adder, Half and Full Subtractor
- Design of Arithmetic Circuits and Code Converter using K-Map – Gray to Binary and Binary to Gray
- Arithmetic Circuits – Adder and Subtractor
- Arithmetic Circuits – BCD Adder
- Encoder/Decoder – Basics of Encoder
- Encoder/Decoder – Basics of Decoder
- Encoder/Decoder – Comparison of Encoder and Decoder
- Encoder/Decoder – BCD (IC 7447) to 7 Segment Decoder/Driver
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexer – Working of Multiplexer – Truth Table
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexer – Applications of Multiplexer and Demultiplexer
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexer – MUX Tree
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexer – IC 74151 as MUX
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexer – DEMUX Tree
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexer – DEMUX as Decoder
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexer – IC 74155 as DEMUX
- Buffer – Tristate Logic
- Buffer – Unidirectional and Bidirectional Buffer

**Sequential Logic Circuit**

- Basic Memory Cell – RS-Latch using NAND and NOR
- Triggering Methods – Edge Trigger and Level Trigger
- SR Flip Flops
- SR Flip Flops – Clocked SR Flip Flop with preset and clear
- SR Flip Flops – Drawbacks of SR Flip Flop
- JK Flip Flops – Clocked JK Flip Flop with Preset and Clear
- JK Flip Flops – Race Around Condition in JK Flip Flop
- JK Flip Flops – Master Slave JK Flip Flop
- JK Flip Flops – D and T Type Flip Flop
- JK Flip Flops – Excitation Table of Flip Flop
- JK Flip Flops – Block Schematic and Functional Table of IC 7474, 7475
- Shift Register – Logic Diagram of 4-bit Shift Registers – SISO, SIPO, PIPO, PISO
- Shift Register – 4-Bit Universal Shift Register
- Counters – Asynchronous Counter
- Counters – Synchornous Counter
- Counters – Decade Counter – IC 7490 as Decade Counter
- Counters – IC 7490 as MOD-N Counter
- Counters – Ring Counter
- Counters – Twisted Ring Counter

**Data Converters and PLDs**

- Data Converters – Types of DAC
- Data Converters – Weighted Resistor Circuits
- Data Converters – R-2R Ladder Circuit
- Data Converters – DAC IC 0808 Specifications
- Data Converters – ADC: Block Diagram, Types, and Working
- Data Converters – Working of Dual-Slope ADC
- Data Converters – Working of SAR DAC
- Data Converters – Working of ADC IC 0808, 0809
- Memory – RAM and ROM Basic Building Blocks
- Memory – Read and Write Operations
- Memory – Types of Semiconductor Memories
- PLD – Basic Building Blocks
- PLD – Types of PLDs – PLA, PAL, GAL
- PLD – CPLD – Basic Building Blocks and Functionality

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